Apr 22, 2018

Important Comments for Hindi Doubt Clearing Videos and Reply

These are the doubts of many viewers from all parts of the world. The solutions of those doubts are explained below.

Question: आधा ल् को और कोई सबद में कैसे पढ़ें .

Solution- Suppose I take an example of half word उल्का. Here half ल् is pronounced for short period of time in comparison to ल . And half ल् is pronounced with क as ल्का. 
Watch these two video. 1. https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=_fUXrxIbEgA 
2. https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=xoWzBg93D-A 


Question: Vinod Singh 6 days ago
Sir main hindi ma bhot week hoo muza hindi likhne nahi aat ha aap he kuch bato aap reply zuar dana please sir ji

Reply:. Watch this video
https://www.youtube.com/embed/yyJ6YyfRNoo

madangopal brijpuria 1 week ago
प्र ( प र ) प्र कोई अक्षर नहीं है

Reply:. Azra Ahmad 1 week ago
प्र is not any word in Hindi.
wheb प and र pronounced simultaneously in Hindi it becomes प्र. 
These types of letter are mostly comes from Sanskrit.
For example :
प्रकाश , क्रय, क्रमशः, प्रेम, प्रयोग, द्रुत, श्रीमान, भ्रम


Question: narendar singh 3 months ago
Sir kya ap kri क्रि ya कृ is type ke doubt me difference bta skte ha

Reply. Azra Ahmad 3 months ago
कि के साथ र = क्रि
क पर ऋ की मात्रा = कृ


Question: Abhi bhi confusion ha both sound same pta kase chlega ki ra ki mntra ha ya ree ki ha jase क्रि and कृ me sound same ati ha jase kbhi kuch clearly bta skte ho
paul haokip 1 month ago
Toh matlab angrezi shabdo mein र aur sanskrit se jude shabdo mein ऋ lagayi jati hai...?

Reply. क्रि = क्रिया
similarly.
क्रय, क्रेता, प्रकाश, श्रम, भ्रम.
Maximum Sanskrit words are with ऋ matra.
कृपा
कृष्ण
etc


Question:Vandana Prasad 3 days ago
ढ aur ढ़ mein kya farak hai....plzz bataiye

Reply. Watch this video for difference between ढ aur ढ़ .
https://www.youtube.com/edit?o=U&video_id=DL1LbmFLHBI

The exact video will be made for this.


Question:Reshlal Netam 1 week ago
हंस और हँसना में कौन सा बिन्दु लगाएँ जाते हैं कृपया स्पष्ट करें आप के इस विडियो के लिए धन्यवाद

Reply. Azra Ahmad 6 days ago
हँसना = Right
हंस = Right
Because हंस = हन्स
This is according to the best of my knowledge.


Question:Sanjay Yadav 1 week ago
sir ye btao adha k adha s kaise samjhe plz plz tell me sir

Reply. Azra Ahmad 5 days ago Half letter are pronounced with short period of time in comparison to that of the full letter.
watch this video:https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xoWzBg93D-A&lc=UgzscVDb749Z3jeEZdB4AaABAg


Question:Dinesh Lakshkar 1 week ago (edited)
नीचे दिए हुए दो शब्द है उनका प्रयोग कब किया जाता है
1 इसलिए
2 इसीलिए
सभी विद्वजन कोशिश करें।

Reply. Azra Ahmad 2 seconds ago
इसलिए : आप बीमार हो इसलिए आप को आराम करना चाहिए .
इसीलिए : मेरे बात को आप ध्यान नही दिए , आप की तबीयत और खराब हो गई, इसीलिए मै किसी को उपदेश नही देता हूँ.
इसीलिए is used in a complex sentence to confirm something proven conditions. It is confirmed in the second sentence that what ever i told in first one is hundred percent true and perfect.
It is according to the best of my knowledge.
If some one can add his knowledge to this , then it will be a better discussion. Show less


Question:MANISH SHARMA 1 week ago रां इसे क्या बोलेंगे

Reply. Azra Ahmad 1 week ago
र आधा न के साथ
रांत = रान्त
This is according to the best of my knowledge.


Question:Reply · Jitendra More 2 weeks ago ब्र र्व्र ह्र द्ध स्र ह्म ऐसी अक्षरे को कैसे पढ़ा और समझा जा सकता है

Reply. Azra Ahmad 2 weeks ago
Thanks for advice. I have no any video on these words. I will sure try to create a video on these letters.


Normal explanation of shubham Kart: shubham kart
2 months ago
main difference bhi btayen ji.
'स ' उच्चारण करते समय जीभ को दाँत की ओर ले जाना पड़ता है इसलिए 'दन्त स' कहलाता है ।
'श' के उच्चारण के लिए जीभ को तालु के तरफ ले जाना पड़ता है ( उपर की ओर समतल भाग जो है ) इसलिए 'तालव्य श' कहलाता है ।
'ष' उच्चारण के लिए जीभ को मुर्धा की ओर ले जाना पड़ता है ( दाँत के ऊपर और तालु के नीचे जो खुरदुरा भाग है ) इसलिए 'मुर्धन्य ष' कहलाता है ।
एक बार उच्चारण कर के देखें पता चल जाएगा ।

Question: Vimal Kumar Bansal
1 month ago
मैंने कहीं पढ़ा था कि 'ष' को ट वर्ग के साथ होने पर 'श' की तरह से तथा अन्य स्थानों पर 'ख' की तरह बोला जाता हैं। पर इससे 'वेश-भूषा' को कैसे बोला जाये यह समझना मुश्किल हो जाता हैं।

Reply. Azra Ahmad
Azra Ahmad 1 second ago
Sorry for late reply. अधिकतर ष का उच्चारण ख तब होता है जब यह प्रारंभ मे आता है. जैसे षटकोण को खटकोण बोलते हैं

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Apr 21, 2018

Hindi Matra Learning With Example UPDATED | हिन्दी के मात्रा सीखना

1. hindi vowel and its matra.

अ (no matra for अ) आ इ ई उ ऊ ए ऐ ओ औ

Watch all matra in image. These 9 matra's symbol are given respectively for the 9 vowels mentioned above:

2. In this part three letters have been illustrated with all 9 Matras.

का , क़ि , की , कु , कू , के , कै, को, कौ ,

गा, गि , गी, गु , गू, गे , गै , गो, गौ

च , चा , चि , ची , चु , चू , चे , चै , चो , चौ

3. About five letter is used to illustrate 9 Matra with examples.

क -- (No matra symbol on a consonant letter)
but क = क् + अ

का --कागज
क़ि -- किरण
की -- कीमत
कु -- खुटिया
कू -- कूटना
के -- केला
कै -- कैसा
को -- कोमल
कौ -- कौशल

गा= गाना
गि= गिरना
गी= गीत
गु= गुम
गू= गूगल
गे = गेट
गै= गैरकानूनी
गो = गोपाल
गौ = गौरव

चा = चाचा ,
चि = चिकना ,
ची = चीखना,
चु = चुकाना,
चू = चूरन ,
चे = चेतन ,
चै = चैताली ,
चो = चोर,
चौ = चौरस,



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Apr 16, 2018

Question Paper Science Class 5 ICSE

FINAL TERMINAL EXAMINATION

Question Paper Science Class 5 ICSE

2015-2016
Subject: SCIENCE
Class V
Full Marks: 80
Time: 2 Hrs.

GROUP A
(Answer all the questions)

1. Name the following..................... (10 x 1=10)

a) The uppermost vertebra

b The largest part of the brain

c) The opening of the eye through which the light enters the eye lens.

d) The tiny buds present on the surface of the tongue

e) The sensory nerve that joins the eye to the brain

f)The gas that is filled in electric tubes to give a bright glow

g) The heavenly body revolving around a planet in space.

h) The first man to go into space

i) People who study earthquakes

The only active volcano in the Indian subcontinent

2. Fill in the blanks: (10 x 1- 10)

a) We can not move our _____________ jaw

b) Muscles are attached to the bones by strong fibres called ____________

c) The lowest two pairs of ribs of ribcage are called _____________

d) The system that controls all other systems of our body is the _____________

e)_____________ air is warmer than _____________ air

f)_____________ permanganet crystals are added to the water of wells for killing germs.

g)Water must be boiled for at least _____________ minutes

h) The craters on the surface of the moon are formed by pieces of rocks called _____________

i) No sound can be heard on the moon as there is no _____________ on the moon.

3. Match the column Idian satellite The firs

a) The hinge joint ................. ii) skin cancer

b) Cornea ................. iii) The shoulder joint

c) sense organs .................iv) The knee

d) medulla .................i) earthquake

e) The ball and socket................. v) The circular transparent sein the front portion of the joint eye

f) ultraviolet rays .................vi) connects us to the outside world

g) Aryabhatta .................vii) Richter scale

h) Kalpana Chawla .................viii) Connects the brain to the spinal cord

i)Eathquate .................ix) crust

The earth's upper layer .................x)Space travellers

4. Give two examples of each of the following : ........(5 x 2 = 10)

a) organ system

b) solids that dissolve in water

c) diseases caused by impure water

d) opaque bodies

e) gases present in atmosphere

GROUP-B
(Answer all the questions)

5. Answer the following questions: ...........(4 x 2=8)

a) Why do we feel uncomfortable on a humid day?

Write the functions of cerebellum .

c) Why does the moon shine?

d)What is drought?

6. Differentiate between the following (4x 3 = 12)

a) voluntary and involuntary muscles.

b) sensory and motor nerves.

c) solar eclipse and lunar eclipse.

d) filtration and distillation.

7. Answer the following questions:...........(5x4=20)

a) How is our skeleton useful to us?

c) How are man-made satellite useful to mankind

d) Mention the processes involved in the treatment of the town water supple

e) How can you take care of your eyes

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Apr 15, 2018

Paraphrase of The Merchant Of Venice ACT 1 SCENE 1 Class 9,10

ACT 1 SCENE 1 [VENICE, A STREET]
1."Line 1 to 7 speech of Antonio"

In truth I know not why I am so sad.It makes me tired.But I still don't know how I have it,found it or came by it.What it is made up of and what of its origin.This sadness makes me so absent-minded that I do not know who I am.

Paraphrase of The Merchant Of Venice ACT 1 SCENE 1 Class 9,10 image 1
2.Line 8 to 14 speech of Salarino

You are stressed because you are worried about your rich ships (argosies ) which are sailing stately like gentlemen and important citizens on sea surface.Or as it is procession of the sea to surpass the small commercial boats by these argosies.The small ships move up and down as if they were showing respect ,As if they speed fast by them with their canvas sailing.

3.Line 15 to 22 speech of Salanio

Sir believe me If I had such a business operation the better part of my affection would be sailing at the sea.I should be holding up the grass blade to see in which direction the wind is blowing.I would be looking for ports , harbors and channels and every which would harm my venture.I would be full of doubts that these things would make me sad.

Paraphrase of The Merchant Of Venice ACT 1 SCENE 1 Class 9,10 image 2
3. Line 23 to 41:Speech of Salarino

When my breath would be cooling my soup then it would shiver me giving the ugly thought of what harm might the wind do to my ships.I should not be watching the hour glass because it would give me the thought of shallow waters and sandbanks in which my wealthy ships would be docked in sand.She would be lowering her top of the mast than her sides to kiss the sand in which she is buried.I should not go to the church and see the holy edifice of stone which would give me the thought of dangerous rocks harming my gentle vessel's side and scattering all the spices on the stream and covering the roaring waters with silk.Just before this moment the cargo was so much valuable and now its worth is nothing.If I can imagine all this could happen shall I not have the imagination of such a disaster would cause me on my merchandise.

4. Line 42to 46 speech of Antonio:

Believe me no that I thank my luck for it .My business is not trusted upon one ship,nor is my whole estate is concentrated on the luck of this year.Therefore my merchandise makes me not so sad.

5. Line 47 Speech of Salarino:

Why then you are in love?

5. Line 48 Speech of Antonio:

Fie!Fie!

Line 49 to 58 Speech of Salarino:

Not in lov e either Then let us say that you are sad because you are not merry and it was as easy for you to laugh and leap and say that you are merry because you are not sad.Now by two-sided Janus Nature has framed strange fellow in her time Some will have wrinkles on their faces because when they laugh their eyes appear to be peering through folds.They laugh at bag piper as foolishly as a parrot laughs at anything.Others such have an expression that they will show not their teeth to smile though Nestor would swear that the joke was laughable.

6. Line 59 to 61 Speech of Salanio:

Here comes Bassanio the noblest friend.Good bye Gratiano and Lorenzo,We will leave you with better company.

7. Line 62 to 63 Speech of Salarino:

I would have stayed till I had made you happy if worthier friends had not arrived and prevented us.

8. Line 64 to 66 Speech of Antonio:

I think you are not taking their coming as excuse as you have some important business calls to that you have taken as an opportunity depart from here.

9. Line 67 Speech of Salarino:

Good morning my friends.

10. Line 68 to 69 Speech of Bassanio:

Good gentleman when we shall have a party?You are becoming strange to me.

11. Line 70 Speech of Salarino:

When we are free and when it is mutually convenient we shall meet. [Exit Salarino and Salanio]

12. Line 71 to73 Speech of Lorenzo:

My lord Bassanio since you have found your friend Antonio We will leave you but at dinner time remember that where we must meet.

13. Line 74 Sppech of Bassanio:

I will not make you sad.

14. Line 75 to 78 Speechof Gratiano:

You look not well Signior Antonio .You are too muc anxious about worldly matters.Those who spend too much time worrying about worldly matters are never really happy. Believe me your appearance has changed so much.

15. Line 79 to 81 Speech of Antonio:

I interpret the world as a stage where every man has a role to play and mine one is a sad one.

16. Line 82 to 106 Speech of Gratiano:

Let me play the role of fool with mirth and laughter when one laugh let wrinkles appear on the face and let my live warmed by the wine than my heart sighing and groaning with sadness.
Why should a man whose blood is warm inside sit as still as a carved staue of his grandfather and be motionless during the working hours,gradually work himself to be in a jaundiced state by being irritable.I am saying this out of love for you.There are sort of men whose faces are overcasted with pale expression as unchanging as the surface of a pool of standing water and as the cream on the top of milk.They deliberately put on an air of solemnity with the intention of creating a reputation of wisdom,gravity and deep thought. When they open open their lips as if they were Sir Oracle and let no sound is heard when they are speaking.O my dear Antonio I know many of these things .These people are only reputed as wise people.I am very sure that when they would speak would damn those ears.Hearing them their brothers would call them fool.I will take out time for all these things.Come Lorenzo Good bye to you I will end my good advice after dinner.

17. Line108 to110 Speech of Lorenzo:

Well we will leave you till dinner time but I must be the one who always remains dumb because Gratiano never give me to chance to speak.

18. Line 111 to 112 Speech of Gratiano:
Well keep me with you for two more years and you will forget to recognise your own voice.

19. Line 113 Antonio:

Goood bye I will become a talkative person because of this advice.

20. Line 114-115 Speech of Gratiano:
Thanks indeed because Silence is commendable only in dried tongue ox. [Exit Gratiano and Lorenzo]

21. Line 116 Antonio:

Does it make any sense?

22. Line 117 to 122 Speech of Bassanio:

Gratiano speaks a great deal of nonsense more than any man in venice.His reasons are like that of two grains of wheat hidden in two bushes of chaff. You will take all day longer to find them but when you have found it there worth is nothing.

23. Line 123 to 125 Speech of Antonio:

Well tell me about the lady whom you promised to visit secretly. You have promised me to tell about her.

24. Line 126 to 138 Speech of Bassanio:

It is not unknown to you that how I have disabled my means of living By living rather in a grand style than my modest means allow me to keep up.I never compel myself to give up this noble living but my chief problem is to come out off these debt from my youth which has been rather too extravagant.To you Antonio I owe the most in both money and love.And your feelings give me the right to tell you my all plannings and intentions to make myself free from these debts.

25. Line 139 to 143 Speech of Antonio:

I request you Antonio Let me know your plannings and if it is perfectly honourable in nature then my purse my people and my all resources are all yours.

26. Line 144to 156 Speech of Bassanio:

In my school days When I had lost one arrow then I used to shot the another arrow in the same direction and used to watch it very carefully. In doing so I used to find the both. I urge this childhood proof because it has pure innocence.I owe to you the much and like a self willed youth , the amount I used to owe to you has been lost.But if you send another loan that self way I am sure I will reach the goal to find the both or at least bring you the first amount.I will remain a debtor for the first amount.

27.Line 156-164 Speech of Antonio:

You know me very well but you are spending time by appealing to my love in this complicated manner.In doing all this things you have done more wrong on doubting on what I can do for you than if you have destroyed my all wealth.You should only say to me what I can do for you. I am prepared to do it , therefore only speak.

28.Line 165-180 Speech of Bassanio:

In Belmont there lives a rich princess and She is fairer than the word'fair'.Sometimes from her eyes I receive speechless messages of love.Her name is Portia.She is not less beautiful than Cato's daughter and Brutus's wife Portia.The world is also not ignorant of her beauty and wealth because renowned princesses come from all the four directions. Her bright golden lock of hair hang from her cheeks like a golden fleece and her seat of Belmont is like Colcho's shore and many adventurous suitors come here.O Antonio if I had the means to become a rival with these suitors.My mind foretells me that I will be a lucky winner.

29.Line 182-189 Speech of Antonio:

You know that all my fortunes are at sea.Neither I have money nor any goods to raise this present amount of money.Therefore go forth and take me as your insurer to go to Belmont to fair Portia.I am sure that I will get rid of this debt soon by my business credit.

Note: THE ORIGINAL LINE IN THE IMAGE MAY BE UP AND DOWN I.E. NOT AT THE RIGHT POSITION OF THE EXPLANATION. KINDLY READ BY MATCHING THEM. Paraphrase of The Merchant Of Venice ACT 1 SCENE 1 Class 9,10 is explained here line by line for the student to understand the content in normal English. It is because the Drama Merchant of Venice is written in Archaic English.
The Merchant of Venice is a renowned drama by William Shakespeare of 16th Century......
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Apr 12, 2018

Reference to context of INDIA'S HERO English Literature Class 9 , 10

1."WONDERFUL" said Mrs. Baruah Remember that it does not have to be a profession............were eager to speak in front of their classmates" (Reference to context)
Question a. Who is Mrs Baruah? Give her full name. Why does she exclaim "WONDERFUL"?

Answer a.In the story “India’s Hero" Mrs Baruah is a middle school teacher who has been portrayed as an accomplished teacher with a cheerful personality. She encourages class participation in different activities.
She is a strict disciplinarian because at the moment she entered the students has settled down in their seats. She was an emotional person too.
Her full name is Mrs Reeta Baruah.
She has exclaimed WONDERFUL because when she asked about the assignment completion then all the forty hands went up in unison. She has beamed at this moment because she thought that the assignment will be a drudge for her students.

Question b. What assignment did Mrs Baruah give and to whom? What is the strength of the class? How do we know that the children had done their work?

Answer b.Mrs Baruah gave her students an assignment on the topic on "what they would like to be when they grow up"
The strength of the class was forty.
When Mrs Baruah asked about the assignment then all the forty hands went up in unison proving that students had completed their task

Question c. c---What else does the author write at the start of the story which tells us that the students were eager to speak in front of the classmates ? What does their eagerness indicate?

Answer c. At the start of the story the author wrote that an air of thrill and enthusiasm prevailed in the class when Mrs Baruah entered the class. This tells us that the students were eager to speak in front of their classmates.
The eagerness of the students indicates that they were very anxious to read their assignment aloud in front of the class.

Question d. Who was the first speaker ?What did he speak of? Who was his idol?

Answer d.The first speaker was Ajit basu.
He spoke of how he wanted to become the best cricketer in the world.
Sachin Tendulkar was his idol.

Question e. -Name the next two speakers. What did they want to be when they grew up?

Answer e.Gayatri Chhabra and Sanjay Damle were the next two speakers after Ajit Basu.
Gayatri Chhabra wanted to be a social worker like her mother.Sanjay Damle elaborated on the theme of flying an airplane with air and cloud as his terrain.


2. " Clearing his throat ...... who led down his life fighting the terrorists in Mumbai in November 2008." (Reference to context)
Question a. Whom does 'he' referred to in the extract? How would you describe him as a student?

Answer a.In the story “India’s Hero" 'He' has been referred to Kabeer ; who read in class 8A.
Kabeer is a shy student. He is not accustomed of facing the entire class and speaking out aloud in front of them. He is an emotional and simple boy ; who valued folks like him therefore he prepared his speech from the depth of his heart defining common people having contribution in different field.

Question b. Was he very confident as he stood up to speak before the entire class? what does it tell about Kabeer?

Answer b.No , Kabeer was not very much confident to speak up before his class mates because his hands were shaking and beads of perspiration appeared on his forehead.
This tells us that though Kabeer was not confident but he somehow stood up to speak before his class. He showed maturity and have guts at that moment to speak up to his class mates.

Question c. What did the other children speak about ? How was this speaker speech different from that of the other students?

Answer c. Kabeer's class mates spoke about professions like that of actors, sport stars and politicians etc.
Kabeer's speech was different from his friends as it did not focus on a particular person, quality or profession. It was a combination of traits of different people coming from different walks of life-people who had stirred Kabeer's heart.

Question d. When did major Sandeep Unnikrishnan became a part of NSG? How had he served in the army before he joined the NSG?

Answer d. major Sandeep Unnikrishnan became a part of NSG in January 2007
When he was 31 years older , he served two tenures with his battalion in counter-insurgency and counter-terrorism operation.

Question e. Write in your own words the reactions of the students as the speaker spoke about the life of Major Unnikrishnan? What do you think to be the reason for such a reaction?

Answer e. The silence prevailed in the class room of 8A . All the eyes were focussed on Kabeer . The Students were waiting for the next lines of the speech . Three minutes were given to each student and Kabeer spoke only for one minute .
Kabeer's speech attracted every ear and eye present in the class room. There was a pin drop of silence and the speech created a suspense in the atmosphere of the class room . Kabeer gave a pause after speaking about Major Unnikrishnan. The students were waiting for Kabeer to continue further his speech . This could be the possible reason for such a reaction of the students.


3. "Sandra saved Moshe when Nareeman house was attacked. Both of Moshe's parents were killed in the attack.
When I grow up I want to be like the caretaker of the Kabristan in Mumbai; who refused to allow the dead terrorists to be buried there. "
(Reference to context)
Question a. Who was Sandra? How was she associated with Moshe?

Answer a.Sandra Samuel was an Indian nanny.
Sandra Samuel saved the life of two years old Moshe Holtzberg during the November 2008 attack on Nareeman House.

Question b. What does the action of the caretakers of Kabristan tells us about these people? What did they proved by their action?

Answer b.The caretakers of Kabristan refused to allow the dead terrorists to be buried in the Indian soil.
This action of the caretakers tell us that they had a great love for their country and the people living in the country. They proved that the only true religion in the world is love and respect for all human beings.

Question c. What according to Kabeer is the only true religion in this world ? What do you think of him from his speech?

Answer c.According to Kabeer , the only true religion in the world is love and respect for human beings. This tells us the Kabeer was an emotional and simple boy who valued simple folks like himself. He turned out to be the true hero of his class and would surely grow up to be the good citizen of the country.

Question d. What was the reaction of the class when Kabeer's speech ended? What effect did his speech have on Mrs Baruah?

Answer d. As Kabeer's speech slowly ended, the class rose as one, applauding and cheering for Kabeer.
Mrs Baruah dabbed a handkerchief to her eyes because tears welled up in her eyes and she was feeling that her students would surely uphold the virtue of peace tolerance and selflessness \ when they grew up.

class='shadow' alt=' '
..... Anonymous.....
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Apr 3, 2018

Where the Mind is Without Fear Poem Question Answer ICSE

Question 1. Read the extract given below and answer the question that follow:
Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high Where knowledge is free.

i) What is meant by "Mind is without fear"? Whose mind is the poet talking about and why?

Answer i). Mind is without fear means fearless mind . The poet Rabindranath Tagore is talking about the mind of his countrymen . He prays everyone in his country should be fearless because the British had ruled India and reduced it to a subjugated nation.

ii)What is meant by : 'the head is held high'? Why is the head bowed down and needs to be held high?

Answer ii.Head is held high means having self respect.
The poet's countrymen heads are bowed down because of the British who are ruling over them. The head should be held high in self respect without having any fear of oppression or compulsion.

Where the Mind is Without Fear Poem Question Answer

iii) What does the poet mean by " Where knowledge is free"? What were the restrictions imposed on the spread of knowledge?

Answer iii)Where knowledge is free means There is distribution of knowledge.
The distribution of knowledge are being restricted by narrow ideas and loyalties. Education is the monopoly of rich and affluent.

iv)What according to the poet, were the effects of the restrictions imposed on the spread of knowledge?

Answer iv) According to poet the restrictions imposed on the spread of knowledge had very much effects on the people of India. Education became the monopoly of the rich and affluent category. The Indians were considered in the category of poor people.

iv)What is sonnet? How is the poem a part of sonnet?

Answer iv) Sonnet is a poem of fourteen lines through which the poet used to express the total ideas, thought or sentiments. Sonnet consists of two parts , viz octave ( which is first eight line) and the sestet ( last six lines) .
As India was under the subjugation of British rule , They were stripped off all political social and economic rights. Therefore in this poem Rabindranath Tagore is praying to God for Indians for their rights and livelihood.

Tagore dreamt of a country where the people could held their heads high with pride and self respect. Knowledge ge must not be bounded for particular category of people. It should be free to all.
Question 2. Read the extract given below and answer the questions that follow:
Where tireless striving stretches its arm towards perfection
where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way
Into the dreary desert sand of dead habit.

i) What does the poet mean by saying 'tireless striving'? What does the poet want his countrymen to achieve by tireless striving?

Answer i) Tireless striving mean working tirelessly and trying hard to achieve something.
The poet wants countrymen to achieve perfection in everything they do and having the capability of reasoning , leaving aside superstitious beliefs and rituals that was very much prevalent in the atmosphere of those days.

ii)Explain why "reason" has been compared to a clear stream.

Answer ii)The clear stream means clarity of thought and the poet here wants that reason should be given with clear thought and should not be engulfed by superstitious thought.

iii)What is meant by dreary desert sand of "dead habit"?

Answer iii)The dreary deset sand of "dead habit" means a place where old customs and outdated traditions are followed by the people.

iv)What according to the poet are the hurdles in achienging perfection.

Answer iv) According to the poet the hurdles in achienging perfections are superstitious beliefs, old customs and outdated traditions. Theses things engulf the brain of Indians during the rule of Britishers.

v) Point out and explain figure of speech in the third line of given extract.

Answer v.The figure of speech used in the third line of the extract "into the dreary desert sand of dead habit" is alliteration. Here the consonant "D" has been reapeted to emphasis that the countrymen had been laid astray from their goal in a place where outdated traditions and customs are followed by them.

vi)How can it be said that the poem is a "song of prayer"?

Answer vi.The poem "Where the mind is without fear" is a song of prayer as it is seen in every line that the poet prays to almighty for fortunes for his country. The country is under the subjugation of Britishers and their rights have been snatched from them. Therefore he prays for his country where countrymen could live with pride and self-respect.

....By ..... Rabindranath Tagore......
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